'The Real Road to Development’: The Americas between Modernisation, Reform and Revolution, 1955-64



This research project examines emerging ideas of progress, modernity, and development from 1955, the conference at Bandung paving the way to the Non-Aligned Movement, until 1964, when the Brazilian coup d’état virtually ended the Brazilian attempt to formulate a third way. During this period, Latin America not only grappled with social and political challenges, but also had to come to terms with their place in a new world order. Consequently, a battle erupted on the ‘real road to development’, as Ernesto Che Guevara famously phrased in 1961, and whether reform, revolution or modernisation theory, as advocated by Washington, would provide the solution. Lastly, the project enquires how Latin American visions were received in the wider context of the Third World and particularly the Non-Aligned Movement, which simultaneously tried to formulate an alternative to East-West bipolarity and to challenge Cold War consensus.

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